Concise History of China Chapter 4 The Southern Song 南宋


To help students learn Chinese better, this website will gradually introduce articles on the process of Chinese history, so that students in the understanding of Chinese history, learning Chinese, twice the result with half the effort. The article will be introduced from the beginning of the dynasty, the main characters and the major events to promote the historical process, the military, economic, scientific and technological level at that time, the status in the world, the reasons for the decline of the dynasty and so on. Only by understanding the history of China, understanding that China has only lagged behind the world for political reasons in the past 100 years, and is now moving towards a comprehensive rejuvenation. It is the trend of historical trends that can not be stopped by sleeping lions. Understand these history and present, learn Chinese well and let students know the importance of learning Chinese and future prospects.

Southern Song Dynasty (1127-1279 AD), the Southern orthodox dynasty established by the Han nationality in Chinese history. After the fall of the Northern Song Dynasty, Zhao Guding was named emperor in Nanjing in response to Tianfu (now Shangqiu, Henan Province), continuing the Song Dynasty, the national name 

"Song ", and the history of the Southern Song Dynasty,and the Northern Song Dynasty is a part of the Song Dynasty, a total of seven nine emperors, enjoy 152 years.

In 1138 AD, the Song Dynasty moved to Lin'an House (now Hangzhou, Zhejiang). In 1141 AD, Song and Jin reached Shaoxing harmony, the Southern Song Dynasty gave up the area north of the Huaihe River, both sides to the Huaihe-Dasanguan as the boundary.

Since then, Jin failed to eliminate the Southern Song Dynasty several times south, the Southern Song Dynasty several Northern Expedition also failed to return, the two sides gradually formed a confrontation.

In the middle and late Southern Song Dynasty, political corruption, traitors, Mobei grassland began to rise in Mongolia. In 1234, Mongolia invaded the Southern Song Dynasty in 1235, and the army and the people of the Southern Song Dynasty fought hard until Lin'an was captured in 1276. In 1278, the 9-year-old Song Dynasty died of illness on the island of Dazhou. In 1279, the Song army was completely defeated.


The Southern Song Dynasty followed the Northern Song Dynasty in many fields, such as politics and military affairs. A series of measures to strengthen centralization of power in the central local power, bureaucracy, justice, military power, and so on. On the basis of recruiting troops for the collapse and Qin Wang's army, the military began the road of military reconstruction, and finally formed several more powerful military forces, so there were Yue Jia Jun and Han Jia Jun. Although the Southern Song Dynasty was in the south of Qinling and Huaihe River, it was a dynasty with a high degree of opening to the outside world. The direct reason for the demise of the Southern Song Dynasty was the devastating blow of the nomadic people in the northern desert to the agricultural relations of production in the Song Dynasty.

But it was in this dynasty that China's economic and cultural development was unprecedented. In literature, such as Fan Chongyan, Ouyang Xiu, Su Shi and so on, in philosophy there are Zhang Hengqu's too empty, Zhou Dunyi's Tai Chi, and so on, just like the eight great schools in the Tang and Song dynasties that we often say at school, they actually occupied six in the Song Dynasty,the three items in the four great inventions of China also came out in this period. It can be said that the Song Dynasty was such a country with culture as the hub chain, and it was also its basic national policy to attach importance to literature and light military force.

In the Song Dynasty, there was a character who had to say that he was the national hero Yue Fei.

Yue Fei (AD 1103-1142), the word Pengju, Song Xiangzhou Tangyin County (now Anyang Tangyin County, Henan Province), the Southern Song Dynasty anti-gold general, famous military strategist, national hero, ranked in the Southern Song Dynasty Zhongxing one of the four generals.

He joined the army in the late Northern Song Dynasty, from 1128 to 1141, led the Yue family army and the Jin army for hundreds of battles, invincible ," to the general phase ".

In 1140, Jin destroyed the League to attack the Song Dynasty, Yue Fei wave division Northern Expedition, successively recovered Zhengzhou, Luoyang and other places, but also in the city, Yingchang defeated the Golden Army, into Zhuxian Town.

Song Gaozong, Qin Hui, but one of the peace, with 12" gold-lettered card "ordered to retreat, Yue Fei in isolation, forced  classes. In the Song and Jin discussions and process, Yue Fei suffered Qin Hui, Zhang Jun and others framed, arrested and imprisoned. In January 1142, Yue Fei was killed with his eldest son Yue Yun and Zhang Xiantong on charges of "unwarranted" rebellion. Song Xiaozong when Yue Fei unjust prison was rehabilitated, buried in the West Lake Qixia Ridge. Posthumous Wu Mu, and then posthumous Zhongwu, sealed the king of Hubei.

Edited by Baoyang from Shanghai Beihaimandarin